Alarm

Alarm core is driven by a collection of rules, which are defined in config/alarm-settings.yml. There are three parts in alarm rule definition.

  1. Alarm rules. They define how metrics alarm should be triggered, what conditions should be considered.
  2. Webhooks. The list of web service endpoint, which should be called after the alarm is triggered.
  3. gRPCHook. The host and port of remote gRPC method, which should be called after the alarm is triggered.

Entity name

Define the relation between scope and entity name.

  • Service: Service name
  • Instance: {Instance name} of {Service name}
  • Endpoint: {Endpoint name} in {Service name}
  • Database: Database service name
  • Service Relation: {Source service name} to {Dest service name}
  • Instance Relation: {Source instance name} of {Source service name} to {Dest instance name} of {Dest service name}
  • Endpoint Relation: {Source endpoint name} in {Source Service name} to {Dest endpoint name} in {Dest service name}

Rules

There are two types of rules, individual rule and composite rule, composite rule is the combination of individual rules

Individual rules

Alarm rule is constituted by following keys

  • Rule name. Unique name, show in alarm message. Must end with _rule.
  • Metrics name. A.K.A. metrics name in oal script. Only long, double, int types are supported. See List of all potential metrics name.
  • Include names. The following entity names are included in this rule. Please follow Entity name define.
  • Exclude names. The following entity names are excluded in this rule. Please follow Entity name define.
  • Include names regex. Provide a regex to include the entity names. If both setting the include name list and include name regex, both rules will take effect.
  • Exclude names regex. Provide a regex to exclude the exclude names. If both setting the exclude name list and exclude name regex, both rules will take effect.
  • Include labels. The following labels of the metric are included in this rule.
  • Exclude labels. The following labels of the metric are excluded in this rule.
  • Include labels regex. Provide a regex to include labels. If both setting the include label list and include label regex, both rules will take effect.
  • Exclude labels regex. Provide a regex to exclude labels. If both setting the exclude label list and exclude label regex, both rules will take effect.

The settings of labels is required by meter-system which intends to store metrics from label-system platform, just like Prometheus, Micrometer, etc. The function supports the above four settings should implement LabeledValueHolder.

  • Threshold. The target value. For multiple values metrics, such as percentile, the threshold is an array. Described like value1, value2, value3, value4, value5. Each value could the threshold for each value of the metrics. Set the value to - if don’t want to trigger alarm by this or some of the values.
    Such as in percentile, value1 is threshold of P50, and -, -, value3, value4, value5 means, there is no threshold for P50 and P75 in percentile alarm rule.
  • OP. Operator, support >, >=, <, <=, =. Welcome to contribute all OPs.
  • Period. How long should the alarm rule should be checked. This is a time window, which goes with the backend deployment env time.
  • Count. In the period window, if the number of values over threshold(by OP), reaches count, alarm should send.
  • Only as condition. Specify if the rule can send notification or just as an condition of composite rule.
  • Silence period. After alarm is triggered in Time-N, then keep silence in the TN -> TN + period. By default, it is as same as Period, which means in a period, same alarm(same ID in same metrics name) will be trigger once.

Composite rules

NOTE. Composite rules only work for alarm rules targeting the same entity level, such as alarm rules of the service level. For example, service_percent_rule && service_resp_time_percentile_rule. You shouldn’t compose alarm rules of different entity levels. such as one alarm rule of the service metrics with another rule of the endpoint metrics.

Composite rule is constituted by the following keys

  • Rule name. Unique name, show in alarm message. Must end with _rule.
  • Expression. Specify how to compose rules, support &&, ||, ().
  • Message. Specify the notification message when rule triggered.
rules:
  # Rule unique name, must be ended with `_rule`.
  endpoint_percent_rule:
    # Metrics value need to be long, double or int
    metrics-name: endpoint_percent
    threshold: 75
    op: <
    # The length of time to evaluate the metrics
    period: 10
    # How many times after the metrics match the condition, will trigger alarm
    count: 3
    # How many times of checks, the alarm keeps silence after alarm triggered, default as same as period.
    silence-period: 10
    # Specify if the rule can send notification or just as an condition of composite rule
    only-as-condition: false
  service_percent_rule:
    metrics-name: service_percent
    # [Optional] Default, match all services in this metrics
    include-names:
      - service_a
      - service_b
    exclude-names:
      - service_c
    # Single value metrics threshold.
    threshold: 85
    op: <
    period: 10
    count: 4
    only-as-condition: false
  service_resp_time_percentile_rule:
    # Metrics value need to be long, double or int
    metrics-name: service_percentile
    op: ">"
    # Multiple value metrics threshold. Thresholds for P50, P75, P90, P95, P99.
    threshold: 1000,1000,1000,1000,1000
    period: 10
    count: 3
    silence-period: 5
    message: Percentile response time of service {name} alarm in 3 minutes of last 10 minutes, due to more than one condition of p50 > 1000, p75 > 1000, p90 > 1000, p95 > 1000, p99 > 1000
    only-as-condition: false
  meter_service_status_code_rule:
    metrics-name: meter_status_code
    exclude-labels:
      - "200"
    op: ">"
    threshold: 10
    period: 10
    count: 3
    silence-period: 5
    message: The request number of entity {name} non-200 status is more than expected.
    only-as-condition: false
composite-rules:
  comp_rule:
    # Must satisfied percent rule and resp time rule 
    expression: service_percent_rule && service_resp_time_percentile_rule
    message: Service {name} successful rate is less than 80% and P50 of response time is over 1000ms

Default alarm rules

We provided a default alarm-setting.yml in our distribution only for convenience, which including following rules

  1. Service average response time over 1s in last 3 minutes.
  2. Service success rate lower than 80% in last 2 minutes.
  3. Percentile of service response time is over 1s in last 3 minutes
  4. Service Instance average response time over 1s in last 2 minutes, and the instance name matches the regex.
  5. Endpoint average response time over 1s in last 2 minutes.
  6. Database access average response time over 1s in last 2 minutes.
  7. Endpoint relation average response time over 1s in last 2 minutes.

List of all potential metrics name

The metrics names are defined in official OAL scripts, right now metrics from Service, Service Instance, Endpoint, Service Relation, Service Instance Relation, Endpoint Relation scopes could be used in Alarm, and the Database access same with Service scope.

Submit issue or pull request if you want to support any other scope in alarm.

Webhook

Webhook requires the peer is a web container. The alarm message will send through HTTP post by application/json content type. The JSON format is based on List<org.apache.skywalking.oap.server.core.alarm.AlarmMessage> with following key information.

  • scopeId, scope. All scopes are defined in org.apache.skywalking.oap.server.core.source.DefaultScopeDefine.
  • name. Target scope entity name. Please follow Entity name define.
  • id0. The ID of the scope entity matched the name. When using relation scope, it is the source entity ID.
  • id1. When using relation scope, it will be the dest entity ID. Otherwise, it is empty.
  • ruleName. The rule name you configured in alarm-settings.yml.
  • alarmMessage. Alarm text message.
  • startTime. Alarm time measured in milliseconds, between the current time and midnight, January 1, 1970 UTC.

Example as following

[{
	"scopeId": 1, 
	"scope": "SERVICE",
	"name": "serviceA", 
	"id0": "12",  
	"id1": "",  
    "ruleName": "service_resp_time_rule",
	"alarmMessage": "alarmMessage xxxx",
	"startTime": 1560524171000
}, {
	"scopeId": 1,
	"scope": "SERVICE",
	"name": "serviceB",
	"id0": "23",
	"id1": "",
    "ruleName": "service_resp_time_rule",
	"alarmMessage": "alarmMessage yyy",
	"startTime": 1560524171000
}]

gRPCHook

The alarm message will send through remote gRPC method by Protobuf content type. The message format with following key information which are defined in oap-server/server-alarm-plugin/src/main/proto/alarm-hook.proto.

Part of protocol looks as following:

message AlarmMessage {
    int64 scopeId = 1;
    string scope = 2;
    string name = 3;
    string id0 = 4;
    string id1 = 5;
    string ruleName = 6;
    string alarmMessage = 7;
    int64 startTime = 8;
}

Slack Chat Hook

To do this you need to follow the Getting Started with Incoming Webhooks guide and create new Webhooks.

The alarm message will send through HTTP post by application/json content type if you configured Slack Incoming Webhooks as following:

slackHooks:
  textTemplate: |-
    {
      "type": "section",
      "text": {
        "type": "mrkdwn",
        "text": ":alarm_clock: *Apache Skywalking Alarm* \n **%s**."
      }
    }    
  webhooks:
    - https://hooks.slack.com/services/x/y/z

WeChat Hook

Note, only WeCom(WeChat Company Edition) supports webhook. To use the WeChat webhook you need to follow the Wechat Webhooks guide. The alarm message would send through HTTP post by application/json content type after you set up Wechat Webhooks as following:

wechatHooks:
  textTemplate: |-
    {
      "msgtype": "text",
      "text": {
        "content": "Apache SkyWalking Alarm: \n %s."
      }
    }    
  webhooks:
    - https://qyapi.weixin.qq.com/cgi-bin/webhook/send?key=dummy_key

Dingtalk Hook

To do this you need to follow the Dingtalk Webhooks guide and create new Webhooks. For security issue, you can config optional secret for individual webhook url. The alarm message will send through HTTP post by application/json content type if you configured Dingtalk Webhooks as following:

dingtalkHooks:
  textTemplate: |-
    {
      "msgtype": "text",
      "text": {
        "content": "Apache SkyWalking Alarm: \n %s."
      }
    }    
  webhooks:
    - url: https://oapi.dingtalk.com/robot/send?access_token=dummy_token
      secret: dummysecret

Feishu Hook

To do this you need to follow the Feishu Webhooks guide and create new Webhooks. For security issue, you can config optional secret for individual webhook url. if you want to at someone, you can config ats which is the feishu’s user_id and separated by “,” . The alarm message will send through HTTP post by application/json content type if you configured Feishu Webhooks as following:

feishuHooks:
  textTemplate: |-
    {
      "msg_type": "text",
      "content": {
        "text": "Apache SkyWalking Alarm: \n %s."
      },
      "ats":"feishu_user_id_1,feishu_user_id_2"
    }    
  webhooks:
    - url: https://open.feishu.cn/open-apis/bot/v2/hook/dummy_token
      secret: dummysecret

Update the settings dynamically

Since 6.5.0, the alarm settings can be updated dynamically at runtime by Dynamic Configuration, which will override the settings in alarm-settings.yml.

In order to determine that whether an alarm rule is triggered or not, SkyWalking needs to cache the metrics of a time window for each alarm rule, if any attribute (metrics-name, op, threshold, period, count, etc.) of a rule is changed, the sliding window will be destroyed and re-created, causing the alarm of this specific rule to restart again.